What to wear when cycling in cool weather

  • By Tim Cusick
  • 13 Dec, 2017

We’re about to kick off the winter training camp season with our Texas Hill Country Base Training Camp , and there’s a common question that most campers have when planning their trip: What clothes should I bring and what should I wear?

Let’s start with a general observation on dressing in cooler or cold weather. Many riders wear too many clothes in an effort to stay warm and end up being colder. The reality is that warmth on a cooler day ride is a “slope,” meaning you either start colder and end warmer or start warmer and end colder. Why? Sweat is the enemy. When you start too warm (or at what feels like a comfortable temperature), you’ll overheat as you ride, which results in a higher rate of sweating. I’ve done a lot of work on heat adaptation, and I’ve learned that wearing just one too many layers can increase your sweat level by 20-50%. It makes for a comfy start to your ride, but regardless of how good the wicking properties of your clothing are, sweat will eventually build up and begin to make you colder and colder, until you finish the ride chilled even if the air around you has warmed up. The trick is to start off cool and wear clothing that will limit and appropriately manage sweat, allowing you to stay dry and warm as both your effort and the temperature rise.

What to wear for our Texas hill country cycling camp in Fredericksburg

A picture is worth a thousand words. Take a look at this one of me wearing my typical clothing for most rides ranging from 35-55 degrees at the start of the ride. The typical temperature in Fredericksburg at the time we’ll be riding there in January will be between 45-60 degrees.
Here’s a quick overview of the clothing you might need:
Body Part Recommendation Notes
Head Ear-warming headband Full head coverage can feel too warm, but be sure to have a good wide headband that covers the ears and keeps thing warm.
Core/Upper Body Base layer A good base layer is key. I go for excellent wicking like that of Craft products ( the Active Extreme 2.0 is my favorite ), which offer solid warmth. For temperatures under 40 degrees, I use merino wool for wicking and warmth ( Capo makes my favorite ).
Core/Lower Body Bib shorts I rarely recommend lower-body base layers of any sort. The core of your body (from your chest down to your groin) will stay warm under effort.
Outer Upper Body Option 1 : Short-sleeved jersey, arm warmers, and wind vest
Option 2 : Long-sleeved jersey and wind vest
For temperatures between 40 and 55 degrees, these are your go-to layers. If things get warm, you can regulate your temperature by opening the wind vest or removing it and stashing it in your pocket. If things get colder, use a slightly heavier, long-sleeved jersey.
Lower Body Knee or leg warmers I tend to avoid tight and heavy leg warmers until temperatures are well below freezing. This is an area where you can build up a lot of heat and force the upper body to sweat more. Warmers are easy to remove and carry when the air warms up.
Hands 2 layers of gloves I always layer my gloves. Hands and feet have a big effect on cyclists’ thermoregulation of heat (and our perception of warmth), and I want the flexibility of removing layers if I get warm. Depending on how cold it is, I use a base layer glove of light wickable material ( the Thermal Lite Glove is my favorite ) or a heavier merino wool liner ( Ibex's conductive merino liner glove is my favorite ). I wear a mid-weight Craft glove as my outer layer.
Feet Wool socks and covers Socks are very personal, and what counts most is how things fit in your shoes. People often wear socks that are too thick, which makes their shoes overly tight, reducing circulation and actually making them colder. Again, merino wool is my choice, and both Capo and Giro make excellent versions.

What clothes to bring to camp

Now that we understand what to wear in cooler weather, the list of what to bring should get more clear. I suggest bring 3-4 complete kits to camp; this will allow you to be comfortable each day and still manage laundry. Our camps all feature on-site laundry or (for our premium camps) laundry service, and with Chamois Butt’r as a sponsor in Fredericksburg, we’ll be giving out samples of their Kit Wash to help keep your clothes clean and bacteria free!

That covers the basics. But what about extremes like higher or lower temperatures than expected, or even rain? Here’s a short list of items to bring in order to cover all possibilities:

  • A lighter underlayer in case of warmer temps
  • A portable rain jacket in case of rain
  • A long-sleeved jersey
  • Heavier gloves
  • Heavier/waterproof shoe covers
  • A full hat
  • Tights, if preferred
  • A heavier jacket, if preferred

We’ll also talk about clothing at camp and discuss how to stay warm as part of the learning experience, and we'll have support on the road to carry items in case you get too cold or hot.

If you’re still not sure what to bring, just email us at team@velociouscyclingadventures.com . We can help!

Velocious Cycling Adventures Blog

By Tim Cusick 04 Jan, 2018

Our adventure cycling camp in Mallorca is our premier (and favorite) camp. I’ve been coming here for well over a decade, and I’ve introduced hundreds of cyclists to this cycling mecca in the Mediterranean. It’s a big trip and a great adventure, and we want to make sure you arrive ready to make the most of it!

The biggest challenge of a training camp for most people is fretting about their fitness and whether or not they’ll be able to hang with the group. This is the first and best advice I will give you: don’t fret! Mallorca is an amazing place to ride for anyone, regardless of your fitness. Don’t get me wrong, showing up with some fitness will make it more enjoyable, but this is easily accomplished with a basic training program, and if that’s something you’re interested in, read on!

Count backward

When you decide to get in shape or lose weight, it’s important to set a clear starting point. For your trip to Mallorca, count back from the first day of the trip to figure out when to start your basic training and riding to build some fitness. How many weeks back you go depends on what type of fitness you want.

Here are three sample fitness goals and a suggested time range:
  • Tour-de-France fit and flying: Count back 16 weeks from the start of camp
  • Solid all-around fitness: Count back 12 weeks from the start of camp
  • Ride-and-enjoy fitness: Count back 8 weeks from the start of camp
Once you have an idea of your training time range, follow these simple steps:

Break it down

Once you’ve counted back to your start date, break the training into four-week blocks; these are called macrocycles. In formal training, each macrocycle is given a specific purpose, which is based on the demand of the event you’re training for. Here are some of the “demands” of a cycling camp in Mallorca:

  1. Longer days of riding, ranging from 3-5 hours on the bike; it may be helpful to build endurance and stamina
  2. Medium-grade climbs ranging from 10-25 minutes (at least one solid climb on each ride); it may be helpful to build threshold and strength
  3. Small group riding; it may be helpful to build group and pace-changing skills

Since each macrocycle should focus on one goal, I recommend using one or two of the cycles to work on aerobic fitness and stamina as you prepare for longer days of riding than you may be used to. Longer aerobic rides and tempo work will help here. Then spend one solid macrocycle of building threshold with sweet spot training and threshold efforts. The final cycle should focus on group work and change of pace, which is easy; just get out at least two days a week in the local group ride.

Progress your training

Our bodies adapt to exercise stimuli stress, so if you want to continue to adapt, you’ll need to increase the stress. In exercise physiology, this is called the progression principle, and it’s the underlying driver to what we typically view as building fitness. How do you put this principle to work? There are three ways you can increase stress:

  • Increase the duration of your riding time
  • Increase the intensity of your riding effort
  • Increase both duration and intensity

You can continue to build fitness by riding further/longer or by riding harder. Here’s a simple rule of thumb: once you count back and have your training start date, split the weeks in half and focus on riding longer in the first half and riding harder in the second half. If you’re just riding and building some fitness without a formal training plan, this approach will work pretty well.

As you can see, getting ready for camp doesn’t have to be complicated. If you’re interested in more tips, we have formal training plans available , but remember the first rule: don’t fret. It’s going to be fun!

See you in Mallorca!

By Tim Cusick 13 Dec, 2017

We’re about to kick off the winter training camp season with our Texas Hill Country Base Training Camp , and there’s a common question that most campers have when planning their trip: What clothes should I bring and what should I wear?

Let’s start with a general observation on dressing in cooler or cold weather. Many riders wear too many clothes in an effort to stay warm and end up being colder. The reality is that warmth on a cooler day ride is a “slope,” meaning you either start colder and end warmer or start warmer and end colder. Why? Sweat is the enemy. When you start too warm (or at what feels like a comfortable temperature), you’ll overheat as you ride, which results in a higher rate of sweating. I’ve done a lot of work on heat adaptation, and I’ve learned that wearing just one too many layers can increase your sweat level by 20-50%. It makes for a comfy start to your ride, but regardless of how good the wicking properties of your clothing are, sweat will eventually build up and begin to make you colder and colder, until you finish the ride chilled even if the air around you has warmed up. The trick is to start off cool and wear clothing that will limit and appropriately manage sweat, allowing you to stay dry and warm as both your effort and the temperature rise.

By Tim Cusick 16 Nov, 2017
I’ve been coaching cyclists for nearly a decade now, and the most popular goal among new clients is to improve their climbing. The good news is that while not all cyclists are built to be mountain goats, most of us can improve our climbing ability with some patience, hard work, and, well, a few tricks.

The physics of climbing are pretty simple and essentially boil down to a rider’s power output and the total mass of the rider and bike. While there are some other inputs (aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and mechanical friction), gravity is the biggest burden when the tarmac points up.
By Tim Cusick 31 Oct, 2017

A couple weeks ago we talked about the benefits of indoor training , and I mentioned how many of us overdo indoor training and end up as a February Superstar. This is easy to do, but it's also easy to prevent, and, more importantly, with a well-designed plan faithfully executed, you can achieve dramatic performance gains from your indoor winter training and hit the racing or gran fondo season in winning form. All the tools are in place and available to you.

Nevertheless, I still see many people blowing it completely, because it seems to be human nature to hope that you can achieve higher goals if you simply exceed the plan an expert has shown you. More is not better. So here, finally, are my favorite dos and don’ts when following a training plan in general, and I’ll spin the advice to specifically refer to your winter indoor training.
By Tim Cusick 18 Oct, 2017

Your indoor training period can provide the most dramatic fitness gains you experience all year. How? Here are some of the advantages:

  • You don’t have to stop for traffic, signs, or signals while trying to execute focused workloads and intervals. No interruptions. Pure focus makes efficient use of time!
  • You won’t be tempted by the other riders you may encounter to overdo your session, and you won’t be tempted to draft those other riders and under-do your session either. Note that THIS profound advantage has been diminished of late by online virtual racing. More about that later.
  • You minimize the time you spend coasting or pedaling easily due to hills. They make you reduce power output because your speed quickly becomes excessive with even a little power applied.
  • Simply put: you can more easily adhere to a workout script in terms of intensity and time and complete the session on target for the prescription.

With the evolution of ergometer training and its associated software, it’s become simpler, even “turn-key,” to follow your script, because you can pre-program it before the ride. Your control software handles the timing of intervals and rest periods, and your hardware controls the power level to be on-target no matter what. I recall my own frustration with writing out the stop-watch readings to start and end each interval and then watching that terrible clock throughout the sessions. It was tedious and discouraged me from riding. With pre-programmed ergometer training, you are relieved of all the menial tasks and left with only the hardest and most important one: pedaling. You have no excuses, and you won’t make any mistakes or miscalculations.

Indoor training’s effectiveness goes far beyond the scope of the single session as I have described so far. In the bigger picture, with an effective planned progression of workload intensity and recovery, day to day and week to week, you can stay on a path of “maximal rate of improvement” without suffering a physical burnout or setback along the way.
By Tim Cusick 01 Oct, 2017
We want your trip to our cycling camp in Mallorca to be as carefree as possible, and we know traveling can be stressful, so we've put together a list of answers to frequently asked questions many campers have. If your question isn't answered here, comment below or contact us , and we'll be glad to help!
By Tim Cusick 11 Sep, 2017

Probably the most frequently asked question we get about camp is this: should I rent a bike or bring my own? I often suggest packing and bringing your own bike for our tours, but for the Mallorca camp, I recommend that you rent a bike instead. Why? In Mallorca they’ve made it so simple and easy to rent a quality bicycle that it’s hard to find a reason not to take advantage of the process.

So how easy is it exactly? You’ll reserve your bike online in advance, and then when you check in to the hotel, you’ll be handed your bike access key. Bring it down to the bike station, and you’ll find your bike hanging on its numbered hook and ready to go. It’s that simple.

By Tim Cusick 07 Sep, 2017

Let’s face it: cyclocross hurts! Not only does it require strong mental and physical toughness, it also requires a rider to be able to implement both skills and tactics while going full gas. This means we need some highly specific training with lots of time spent focused in the high intensity range.

As with any cycling discipline, historical and current data go a long way to guiding your training strategy, implementation, and tracking, and this will improve your results. But with such an intense discipline, you also need a very specific approach to training with data.

Understand the Cyclocross Hour

A lot of riders compare a cyclocross race to a 40km time trial or a criterium because of its similar duration. This is a good starting point, but while there are lot of similarities, there are also some key differences. Let’s compare these hour events.

By Tim Cusick 03 Aug, 2017

It’s hot, it’s humid, and you’re getting tired. Each August I am reminded that my athletes have been training for eight to nine months now. The typical annual training cycle kicks off in November, and August is usually the final, challenging phase. We all face the challenges of heat, humidity, fatigue, and lower motivation, forcing us to reach deep and finish the season with style.

The challenge? After nine months of both physical and mental focus, we’re tired. Those April feelings of “all I want to do is go fast” have turned into the August “I’m not sure I want to suffer anymore” blues. So how do we combat the combination of physical and mental fatigue? I have one word: change.

For me and my athletes, August is a great time to introduce or experiment with change in order to squeeze in some final performance while improving knowledge. As motivation and fitness begin to fade, we have an excellent opportunity to introduce some change to recharge our late season. At this point in the season, we’re probably as fit as we’re going to be, and our training focus needs to be on speed and performance. Let’s milk the last vestiges of fading fitness in the name of hitting those late-season goals or events.

Change Your Microcycle

You’ve probably been following the same micro cycle pattern for the past eight months now: Monday off, Tuesday hard, Wednesday aerobic, Thursday hard, Friday easy or off, and weekend full of racing or hard group rides. Your body has gotten comfortable with this rhythm and has actually begun to expect it. This is the first area we can introduce some change and elicit some quick results.

What to change? Try a few weeks of block training. Change the rhythm of your training; shock your body out of its norm by introducing a new training pattern. A simple version of block training can be done as three days on (harder training days) followed by two days off/easy, then four days on, then three days off. This creates a twelve-day cycle. Repeat it two times to complete the month. Sure, it might throw off your schedule and make some challenges for longer ride days not falling on the weekend, but don’t worry about it. You really don’t need longer rides this late in the season, and you’ll get more benefit from mixing things up.

By changing up your daily rhythm and requiring your body to first go hard for more days in a row and then rest for more days, you shake things up and push some new adaption by jarring your system back into response mode.

Change Your Training Tactics

Look back over your training for the last ninety days. I bet it will be more patterned than you think. In early spring we start falling into the same workouts, repeating those that best prepare us for racing or the ones that best fit within a heavy race schedule. August is a great time to change our tactics. If you’ve been focusing on threshold-style workouts, complete a full block (as outlined above) of neuromuscular (sprints) and anaerobic capacity-building workouts. If you’ve been pushing a lot of speed work and sprint stuff, go back to some sweet spot work. The goal is to change your intensity and content and shake up the system by changing the tactical focus of your training. Your body is an amazing adaptation machine; it’s used to adapting to the workouts you’ve been doing, so change it up, shock the system, and squeeze out some final improvement.

Change the Way You Race

You’ve been working on your racing strategy and performance all year. August is a great time to test something different. Try mixing it up. If you’re a sprinter, get some early breaks rolling and see if you can make them stick. If you’re a long break rider, sit in and then attack from one kilometer out. Use this time period to experiment with different race tactics while introducing new high-intensity efforts within the race process to shock your system and push some final gains.

Change Your Equipment

August can be a great time to test some changes in equipment. Have you always wondered if you’d be faster on those deep dish wheels versus your light climbers? Try it! Been exploring some minor changes in position? Give them a try and see if they can help you race (just be careful). We can often find some pretty big sales this time of year offers some pretty big sales on different equipment, which can be an excellent opportunity to expand your toy collection.

Change the Measurement

Since I’m the product development leader of WKO4, this might sound sacrilegious, but change the way you train and race with data. August is a great time to introduce some unstructured training and explore racing without data on your handlebars. Here’s a Pez confession: after fifteen-plus years of training with power, I still do not race with power on my head unit. Why not experiment with training and racing by feel?

Turn the dog days of summer into the change days of summer. It’ll refresh you, your training, and your equipment, and you just might up your final performances in the training year!

By Tim Cusick 07 Jul, 2017

Lets face it: climbing is hard! And what’s harder than climbing? Epic climbing! Let’s take as an example the Taiwan KOM Challenge, a 100-kilometer ride from sea level to over 3275 meters (that’s nearly 11,000 feet). In and of itself, the climb is challenge enough for most, but the real crusher is in the final 8 kilometers averaging nearly 11% and topping out above 27% for a short period.

Find Your Gear

With over 11,000 feet of climbing and some significant grade on hand, the first piece of advice is to get some lower gears. The ability to sit and spin is key to reducing muscular fatigue and energy for stronger climbing later in the event.

Spinning puts more strain on the aerobic system, so expect your heart rate to be a tad higher, but it puts less stress on your muscular system, which helps you manage your fatigue better. I would, however, recommend that you avoid over-spinning (using a gear so easy to pedal that you hit very high cadences) as a way of dealing with the elevation gain. There are enough gearing options available to us that we can get some amazingly low gear ratios, but it’s possible to go too low. This is a timed event, after all, and doing well means going faster, not just spinning faster.

My advice to clients doing timed ultra-climb events is to test gears well in advance and find a gear that allows a high cadence target (70-80 rpm) at a tempo climbing pace; I call this our tempo gear. Once this gear is established, we set up the bike with one or two gears easier to pedal to allow for cadence of 75-90 rpm on similar climbs; I call this our spinning gear. We start all early climbing in our spinning gear to help reduce the load on the muscles early, but at some point, to enhance time, you do need to use the tempo gear and push more power.

Find Your Rhythm

Ultra climbing success has a lot to do with your ability to find your climbing rhythm. We frequently hear this term but rarely see it defined; I define climbing rhythm as the ability to synchronize your power output, cadence, and breathing into a coordinated pace or rhythm. Most people seem to think only about the cadence; here’s how you balance all three.

Power: If you have a power meter, you can put an actual number to the effort, but in this case, I simply mean how hard you’re climbing. The rhythm might be different during longer climbs to deal with changes in grade, so the effort required drives the target.

Cadence: Cadence gets matched to power/effort. For ultra events I tell all my clients to put cadence on their device screen in big, bold numbers. Once you’re going at the right power, match a cadence you previously tested in your gearing tests and stay there as best you can.

Breathing: This is the part of the equation most often neglected. As you climb and fall into your rhythm, make sure your breathing does the same. Take deep breaths to get the most oxygen possible and exhale deeply to empty your lungs. I recommend inhaling through the nose when possible and use this phrase to help my clients remember it: smell the roses, blow out the candle. A forceful nose inhale opens up the lungs and diaphragm, and a more explosive exhale through the mouth empties the lungs effectively. Thinking about your breathing in your training rides will help you develop a habit of deep breathing before you have to deep breathe to keep enough oxygen flowing in your system. This takes some mental focus, but it can really help.

Find Your Stance

Should you stand or sit more? I get this question a lot. Generally, the larger you are, the more you should sit and spin instead of stand; the more weight you need to support in standing, the higher the stress on the aerobic and cardiovascular systems. However, standing does not necessarily create a decrease in efficiency, just some different demands.

I believe it’s very important to stand sometimes, regardless of size, because it engages different muscles, changes some blood flow, and gives the sit bones a little break. I recommend my clients take a varied approach toward seating and standing, but I want it to be part of the climbing rhythm, so we develop a pattern of sitting and standing. For example, we might sit for two minutes, stand and climb for twenty to thirty seconds, then sit again for two minutes. Developing a practiced rhythm of sitting and standing helps you get the most from each.

One note: when standing, always shift into one harder gear (assuming the grade stays the same). The standing effort will always increase aerobic stress and heart rate, and you can justify the cost by using the weight to push a slightly bigger gear to get a tad more speed.

Find Your “I Won't Quit” Voice

At the end of the day, the battle of ultra climbing is won in the mind based on your ability to control (or at least ignore) that little voice in your head that eventually starts whispering, “This hurts, go slower, please stop, we are done, ouch…” All endurance athletes spend a lot of time hearing this voice, but the difference is whether or not you listen to it.

There’s a great video rolling around the Internet about a Navy study on this inner voice. According to the video, when the average person's mind says, “You’re done,” the body is actually only 40% done. I don’t usually quote Internet “studies” designed to be more motivational than scientific, but this message resonates with me. As a long-time coach, I’ve seen the mentally tougher athletes win out time and time again. I’ve also seen athletes decide to believe in themselves and, as a result, go way beyond what they thought they were capable of.

The negative whispers aren’t likely to stop. Ever. But you can fight them with a strong positive message. I tell my clients to find a message that inspires them and keep it in their mind. It can be a short mantra that represents your goal for the event, something that inspires you to overcome, or something that simply motivates you. Regardless what it is, use it every time your body says, “I’m ready to quit now.” Counter the inner negative voice with a positive message and a desire to achieve. And remember: you are only 40% done!


The ability to achieve ultra climbing challenges boils down to training and desire. A well-prepared athlete equipped with the right equipment, tools, and mindset can thrive and end up with a very rewarding experience.

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